The history of constitutions can be seen, as an oscillation between the two poles of centralisation and diffusion with new concentrations of power often amplifying the temptation to abuse, while new dispersions of power are often associated with stagnation, paralysis and even more opportunities for corruption. Arrangements that effectively balance power through a federalist approach, for example, are elusive. What is critical is that constitutional arrangements should respect inherited traditions, ensure fairness to minority communities, respond to rural as well as urban concerns and underwrite equitable opportunity for a better life. Reconciling the global and the local, the urban and the rural, the regional and the national, is a formidable challenge, one that calls for the best of our intellectual energies and consistent fine-tuning over time….

In much of the developed world, we have seen the emergence, over time, of two-pronged political structures where one party forms a government and the other constitutes the opposition. This arrangement can foster greater accountability and even a certain stability. But I have to say, I am increasingly sceptical about the emergence of such constructs in many developing countries. To the contrary, I suspect that a continuing multiplicity of widely differentiated parties will mean that some form of coalition government will become the norm.

PARTIAL TRANSLATION REQUIRED: A portion of this item requires translation and we regret only a Google machine translation of these portions is available in the Archive. We would be very grateful if any of our readers, fluent in the original language, would be kind enough to translate the text that follows. Please click here for information on making submissions to NanoWisdoms; we thank you for your assistance.

Permettez-moi d’exprimer avant toute chose ma profonde reconnaissance pour l’insigne honneur que vous me faites.

Je suis également heureux de partager ce moment avec toutes les personnalités conviées aujourd’hui, car vous êtes tous des amis de longue date, ou de nouveaux amis. Je voudrais aussi dire toute ma gratitude pour l’excellence de la coopération dont le Réseau Aga Khan pour le Développement a bénéficié de la part des membres de votre Université, de votre ville et de votre pays. Un exemple tout à fait récent, bien sûr, est le nouveau Centre Mondial du Pluralisme, notre projet commun avec le Gouvernement du Canada, projet qui est aujourd’hui devenu une réalité ici à Ottawa.

Je me dois de souligner que votre Chancelière, Huguette Labelle, est Membre du Conseil de ce Centre, ce qui ne représente que l’une des nombreuses manières dont elle a contribué personnellement aux projets dans lesquels je me suis moi-même profondément impliqué, sans compter les innombrables services qu’elle a rendus au Canada et au monde. Je suis profondément heureux de lui adresser aujourd’hui une salutation toute particulière, au moment où ses hautes fonctions au sein de l’Université d’Ottawa – dix-huit années en qualité de Chancelière !- arrivent à leur terme.

L’esprit de coopération que j’ai évoqué, sur les plans personnel et institutionnel, est bien entendu le reflet des préoccupations que nous partageons à propos des défis auxquels notre monde est maintenant confronté. J’ai été heureux à cet égard de constater que l’Université d’Ottawa a focalisé son attention sur nombre de ces défis dans son nouveau plan stratégique Destination 2020. Votre engagement en faveur du bilinguisme, à titre d’exemple, est le miroir de notre propre volonté de faire progresser l’esprit de pluralisme, et de notre conviction que l’affirmation d’une identité culturelle n’est en rien contradictoire avec l’idée de promouvoir la coopération interculturelle. De fait, les deux mouvements s’épaulent mutuellement.

J’ai aussi à l’esprit la façon impressionnante dont vous avez porté votre intérêt sur un large éventail des sciences de la santé, des sciences moléculaires et des technologies de la communication, intérêt que notre Réseau partage.

[Google translation] Let me first of all to express my deep appreciation for the honor you do me.

I am also happy to share this moment with all the personalities invited today because you’re all old friends or new friends. I would also like to express my gratitude for the excellent cooperation with Aga Khan Development has received from members of your university, your city and your country. A very recent example, of course, is the new Global Centre for Pluralism, our joint project with the Government of Canada, a project that has now become a reality here in Ottawa.

I must stress that your Chancellor, Huguette Labelle, is Member of the Centre, which represents only one of many ways in which she personally contributed to projects in which I myself am deeply involved, without the innumerable services rendered in Canada and the world. I am very pleased today to send a special greeting, when his high office in the University of Ottawa – eighteen years as Chancellor! – Coming to an end.

The spirit of cooperation I mentioned, both personal and institutional, is of course a reflection of the concerns we share about the challenges our world now faces. I was pleased to note in this respect that the University of Ottawa has focused its attention on many of these challenges in its new strategic plan Destination 2020. Your commitment to bilingualism, for example, is the mirror of our own will to advance the spirit of pluralism, and our belief that the assertion of cultural identity is in no way inconsistent with the The idea of promoting intercultural cooperation. In fact, the two movements are mutually reinforcing.

I also have in mind how awesome that you brought your interest on a wide range of health sciences, molecular sciences and technologies of communication, interest our network share.

There are many topics of mutual interest that I could talk about today. But I have picked just one. In my eyes it is important, and I understand that it is also high among your priorities. I refer to the field of governance and public policy, and, specifically, to the difficulty of establishing workable constitutional systems, especially in countries with less experience in democratic governance.

As you know, my own interests in the last 50 years as Imam of the Ismaili community, have been primarily focused on Africa, South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle-East and on improving the quality of life for the people who live there. The more I think about this matter, the more I am persuaded that one of the critical barriers to progress is the way in which governing processes occur. (Emphasis original.)

The University of Ottawa has a long tradition of sharing internationally in the hard work of intellectual enquiry. Canada’s Governor General recently referred to this process as “the Diplomacy of Knowledge.” And it seems to me that questions of constitutional governance in the developing world deserve a particularly high place on that agenda. The so-called Arab Spring has brought special attention to this challenge, illustrating that it is easier to rally people in opposition to a particular government than to forge agreement about new governing processes. But, while this pattern has recently been more dramatically evident, it has been a reality for a very, very long time.

One risk of decentralisation is that it can place more decision-making power into the hands of communities that have had less access to education and governing experience, and less exposure to national and global issues.

In my life, the two moments which contributed most dramatically to this condition were the fall of the British and French colonial empires after World War II and then the disintegration of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European empire two decades ago. The process continues today, as developing nations re-examine sometimes peacefully, sometimes violently the structures under which they are governed. In some cases and I think here of Kenya’s very new constitution, power has been diffused in response no doubt to pressures from ethnic, economic, religious and other centrifugal forces. One risk of decentralisation is that it can place more decision-making power into the hands of communities that have had less access to education and governing experience, and less exposure to national and global issues. Perhaps this is why, in some cases, the trend has been to consolidate governing authority, such as in Afghanistan, with the aim of overcoming inertia and inefficiency as well as fragmented and provincial outlooks.

The history of constitutions can be seen, as an oscillation between the two poles of centralisation and diffusion with new concentrations of power often amplifying the temptation to abuse, while new dispersions of power are often associated with stagnation, paralysis and even more opportunities for corruption. Arrangements that effectively balance power through a federalist approach, for example, are elusive. What is critical is that constitutional arrangements should respect inherited traditions, ensure fairness to minority communities, respond to rural as well as urban concerns and underwrite equitable opportunity for a better life. Reconciling the global and the local, the urban and the rural, the regional and the national, is a formidable challenge, one that calls for the best of our intellectual energies and consistent fine-tuning over time.

The difficulty is, however, that multi-party coalitions can be intrinsically undisciplined, with their differing agendas, and often unstable. In such situations, the threat of defection can be highly destabilising, while accountability is often blurred and transparency is discouraged.

There is a second question related to the experience of fledgling and often failing democracies. In much of the developed world, we have seen the emergence, over time, of two-pronged political structures where one party forms a government and the other constitutes the opposition. This arrangement can foster greater accountability and even a certain stability. But I have to say, I am increasingly sceptical about the emergence of such constructs in many developing countries. To the contrary, I suspect that a continuing multiplicity of widely differentiated parties will mean that some form of coalition government will become the norm. This will especially be the case, of course, in societies that are multi-cultural, multi-religious, or struggling to accommodate secular and religious political forces. The difficulty is, however, that multi-party coalitions can be intrinsically undisciplined, with their differing agendas, and often unstable. In such situations, the threat of defection can be highly destabilising, while accountability is often blurred and transparency is discouraged. Yet, coalition governance is now becoming a familiar form of government in many countries of Asia, Africa and the Middle East.

The broader the array of parties, the greater the risk that they will be based on personalities or narrow parochial identities, rather than a broadly-recognised, predictable point of view. There is certainly no straightforward, universal formula to apply in such situations. We must not naively assume that what has worked in some parts of the Western world, for example, will also work the same way in less developed contexts. Different places, different histories require quite different approaches. (Emphasis original.)

The questions raised by coalition governance are not easy ones, either in the developing world or the developed world. What should be the rules under which parties and other governing entities are put together?

The questions raised by coalition governance are not easy ones, either in the developing world or the developed world. What should be the rules under which parties and other governing entities are put together? How can we best find the glue that will hold them together — such as joint commitments to issues of clear national interest –- and to a spirit of pluralism which values conciliation among diversified viewpoints?

Let me emphasise that I am not opposed to the concept of coalition government. Indeed it may be an inevitable response to the intrinsic pluralism of many of the countries in which I work. But the high level of political instability and failure around the world illustrates the need for creative new thinking about this particularly demanding form of democracy. What constitutional options and best practices will give coalition government the greatest chance of stability and consistent, high quality performance? The alternative is a world widely characterised by significant numbers of unstable states. It is a scenario to be avoided.

Again, the discussion of comparative political systems is just one of many conversations in which the great universities of the world should be vital participants. Our own Aga Khan University is now planning a new Graduate School of Government, Public Policy and Civil Society to help address these issues. And surely this is a discussion in which the University of Ottawa can make a special contribution given the commitment you have articulated to research, the topic of “Canada and the World”, your focus on international intellectual engagement — including 140 bilateral university agreements, your emphasis on fostering democracy, and, indeed, the creation of a new premier Centre for Governance and Public Policy Research.

I know, too, that this University’s global effectiveness is reinforced by the high regard in which Canada is held as a valued international partner. In my experience, a country’s standing in our contemporary world is no longer recognised by what it can achieve for itself, but by what it can do for others. In this context, Canada has truly become a great, world power.

Thank you

His Highness the Aga Khan IV

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